Common Misconceptions About Hormones
What are hormones’ functions? Hormones, chemicals released by the exocrine hormone glands, interact with receptors on the target cells in the body. They must be present in large quantities to have an effect. Although they are only trace amounts, they can have an effect on specific organs. Despite their similarities, hormones act in different ways. Here are a few common misconceptions about hormones.
“They must be present at large quantities in order to have an effect”
Hormones are chemical messengers produced by specialized glands. They are distributed throughout the body and can affect a variety tissues. They perform a variety of functions, including regulating metabolic processes and eliciting specific biological reactions. The body needs very little hormones, which are released from different glands. These messengers carry chemical messages from one part to the other. Some hormones are water soluble and others are not. Some hormones are exitatory, while others are inhibitive.
Hormones regulate cellular functions. In general, positive and negative feedback loops maintain the level of circulating hormones. Water-soluble hormones bind to intracellular protein receptors on target cells. They are released from endocrine organ ducts into the blood. Nitric oxide and epinephrine are both hormones and neurotransmitters that regulate the fight-or-flight response. These substances have different half-lives, clearance rates, and functions despite being similar.
The adrenal medulla is an endocrine gland that regulates blood calcium and secretes the hormone TSH. The secretion of tropic hormones by the hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, and gonads is controlled by the hypothalamus. The pancreas controls blood sugar levels. Its beta cells stimulate the production of glucagon which aids the body to absorb more glucose. It also breaks down glycogen in order to produce glucose.
‘They are targeted to specific organs within the body’
The hormones secreted by the endocrine glands travel through the circulatory system to target cells in the body. They are water-soluble molecules that have specific functions and regulate homeostasis. Several hormones belong to the same chemical class, and their actions are often antagonistic. Hormones are also produced by specialized cells in the endocrine glands.
Steroid hormones are cholesterol, glucose, and fatty acid derivatives. They regulate cell functions and are part the ear that helps us hear. It also helps maintain the overamplification of sound waves. Calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum help activate the contraction cycle of the skeletal muscle by binding to troponin, a receptor on actin. This also helps myosin in its work by removing tropomyosin, a protein that inhibits muscle contraction.
Two key endocrine glands are the adrenal cortex and medulla. They regulate metabolic rate and blood calcium levels. The adrenal medulla regulates gonads and triggers fight-or-flight reactions. The pancreas regulates blood sugar concentration by secreting glucagon. A hyposecreted oxytocin causes a hypoglycemia.