Table of Contents
What is cervical cancer?
There is no one answer to this question as it depends on the individual woman and her situation. Some women may choose to wait and see if cancer progresses, while others may opt for more aggressive treatment right away. The best thing for a woman to do is to speak with her doctor and make a decision that is right for her. If you are in Hong Kong and looking for treatment, you can go to the Hong Kong HPV checkup service.
How does cervical cancer develop?
Cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that is passed from one person to another through sexual contact. There are many different types of HPV, and not all of them cause cancer. In fact, most HPV infections will go away on their own.
However, some types of HPV can cause changes in the cells of the cervix, which can lead to cancer. The HPV virus infects the cells of the cervix, and over time, these changes can lead to cancer.
Most cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, which start in the thin, flat cells that line the cervix. However, some cervical cancers are adenocarcinomas, which start in the glandular cells of the cervix.
Cervical cancer usually takes many years to develop. In fact, most women with HPV will never develop cervical cancer. However, it is important to get screened for cervical cancer, because it is often curable when it is found early.
Who is at risk for cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the tissues of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical cancer is usually slow-growing cancer. It often takes many years even decades to develop.
Cervical cancer is most common in women over the age of 30. The risk of cervical cancer increases with age. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include:
HPV infection: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of viruses that can infect the cervix. Some types of HPV can cause changes in the cervix that can lead to cancer.
Smoking: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of cervical cancer.
Immune system suppression: Women with a weakened immune system are at increased risk for cervical cancer. This includes women with HIV/AIDS and women who have had organ transplants.
Family history: Women with a family history of cervical cancer are at increased risk.
Long-term use of oral contraceptives: Women who have used oral contraceptives (birth control pills) for five or more years have a slightly increased risk of cervical cancer.
What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the cervix the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cases of cervical cancer.
Most cervical cancers develop slowly over time. Early-stage cervical cancers generally don’t cause symptoms, which is why regular screening is so important.
When cervical cancer begins to grow and invade nearby tissues, it may cause bleeding from the vagina that’s not related to your menstrual period. This vaginal bleeding may occur between periods or after sexual intercourse. If the bleeding is heavy, you may need to change your tampon or sanitary pad more often than usual.
Other symptoms of cervical cancer can include:
- Vaginal discharge that doesn’t have a normal odor
- Pelvic pain
- Pain during sexual intercourse
How is cervical cancer diagnosed?
Cervical cancer is most often found during a Pap test, which is a routine test that checks for changes in the cells of the cervix.
The Pap test can find early signs of cancer, which can be treated before cancer becomes more advanced.
If the Pap test shows abnormal cells, the doctor will do more tests to see if cancer is present.
These tests may include a Pap test with HPV testing, a biopsy, or a cone biopsy.
If cancer is found, the doctor will stage cancer to find out how far it has spread.
Staging is a way to find out how serious the cancer is and how best to treat it.
What are the treatments for cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. In 2018, it is estimated that there will be 528,000 new cases and 266,000 deaths from cervical cancer. The majority of these deaths will occur in developing countries.
There are two main types of cervical cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common, accounting for around 80% of cases. Adenocarcinoma is less common, accounting for around 20% of cases.
The main treatment for cervical cancer is surgery. This may involve a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), or a radical hysterectomy (removal of the uterus, cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and lymph nodes). In some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be used before or after surgery.
Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The best way to prevent it is to get vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that is the main cause of cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine is available for girls and boys aged 9-26 years.
What is the prognosis for cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a sexually transmitted infection. The HPV virus is very common, and most people who are infected with it do not develop cervical cancer. However, some types of HPV can lead to cervical cancer over time.
The prognosis, or outlook, for cervical cancer depends on many factors, including the stage of cancer (how far it has spread), the woman’s age and overall health, and whether she has had prior cancer treatment. In general, the earlier the cancer is caught, the better the prognosis.
The five-year survival rate for women with early-stage cervical cancer is 92%. The survival rate drops to 66% for women with cancer that has spread to the surrounding tissues, and to 17% for women with cancer that has spread to distant parts of the body.
Treatment for cervical cancer may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. The type of treatment depends on the stage of cancer. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be used.
How can cervical cancer be prevented?
Cervical cancer is a preventable disease, yet each year nearly 13,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with it and more than 4,000 die from the disease.
Cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another through skin-to-skin contact. There are many different types of HPV, and some can cause cancer, while others do not.
Most cervical cancers can be prevented with vaccination and screening. The HPV vaccine is recommended for girls and young women ages 9 to 26 to help protect against the types of HPV that can cause cancer. The HPV vaccine is given in a series of shots. The HPV vaccine is most effective when given before a person becomes sexually active.
Screening can find abnormal cells in the cervix so they can be treated before cancer develops. The Pap test (or Pap smear) is a screening test that can find abnormal cells on the cervix. The HPV test is a screening test that can find the virus that can cause cervical cancer.
You can also lower your risk for cervical cancer by not smoking and by using condoms the right way every time you have sex.