Olfactory cells and taste buds are adaptation neurones that receive signals from molecules binding to membrane bound proteins. The sensations they detect are interpreted as pleasure. The purpose of smell and taste cells is to identify the smell of food or drink. The MB output regions are the a and b lobes. They are surrounded with feedback neurons that project from peduncles and calyces to provide inhibitory feedback to MB input regions. Various extrinsic neurons project to different parts of the protocerebrum, most conspicuously to the LH. The descending neurons are thought to be involved in the control of olfactory behavior. In addition, VUMmx1 has been identified as an important reinforcement pathway during appetitive conditioning.
The olfactory system has over twelve million receptors, which are responsible for recognizing odors and determining the flavor of foods. These receptors are located on the tongue, and clusters of gustatory receptors are located on bumps called papillae. Each papilla can contain up to eight taste buds. The papillae also have pressure and temperature receptors. In humans, the ability to smell declines with age.
Olfactory cells and tastebuds experience the same stimuli as taste buds. This includes aromas from food. Olfactory neurons serve a unique purpose. They are often supported by supporting cells located within the apical mucosa. The P450 enzyme system is also important in detoxifying the olfactory neural environment.
Both taste and smell are based on chemical receptors that are activated by certain molecules. A group of cells known as taste buds is responsible for detecting a taste. The taste buds are located in clusters inside bumps on the tongue, called papillae. These papillae are structurally distinct. The filiform papillae are tactile, while the fungiform papillae are amorphous. Each taste bud is covered by one to eight taste buds. Each taste bud is arranged around a central taste pore, which allows the body to detect the smell of food and smell the odor of a foreign substance.
The main function of the olfactory or taste receptors is to assess food and drink. They allow animals to identify nutritious and poisonous substances. In addition, the oral mucosa helps to maintain the acuity of the taste receptor cells. Saliva is also a solvent for polar substances and transports them to the taste receptors. Saliva also serves as a buffer for acidic food and acts as a reparative action on the lingual epithelium.
There are many functional areas of olfactory receptors. In addition to the olfactory bulb, the olfactory cortex is responsible for processing and recognition of individual odors. This is the main site for sensory processing and relays sensory information. The olfactory cortex processes the sensory input before relaying it to the cortices. The insula contains gustatory and autonomic areas, while the amygdala contains 2nd order neurons.