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# Royal Pitch

Information From Around The Globe

# Understanding the Relationships Between Computer Memory and Hard Drives

A bullet traveling horizontally at 350 m/s strikes and embeds itself in a block of wood placed on an even surface. Assuming the coefficient of kinetic friction for this particular block is 0.25, how high will the block rise into the air after being struck by the bullet?

#### 1. RAM and ROM: An Overview

RAM, also known as Random Access Memory (RAM), on your computer acts like the top of a desk; it stores all your data for quick retrieval when needed. However, when more work needs to be done, that data is copied onto hard drives or other long-term storage devices. In essence, RAM serves as your “working space,” housing frequent use files while hard drives store non-frequently used files or those you may want to save for future reference.

#### 2. Air Resistance: How it Affects a Projectile

In the absence of air resistance, moving objects do not slow down and have constant velocity components in both horizontal and vertical directions (vx). Likewise, acceleration in one direction (x) has no effect; its initial velocity or v0x) remains unchanged.

#### 3. Cars and Bullets: How They Affect a Bullet

Just as the motion of a car has no impact on a projectile, so too does that of a bullet. This is because both are moving together at the same speed; thus, the bullet’s horizontal velocity component remains tied to that of the car and its acceleration component has no influence over it.

4. A bullet strikes a board: How long does it take for the bullet to pass through?

A bullet strikes a board perpendicular to its surface, passes through and emerges on the other side at 210 m/s. If the board is 4.00 cm thick, how long does it take for the bullet to completely pass through?

5. A bullet strikes a cliff: What distance does it travel and for how long before hitting the ground?

A 6.4 m high cliff faces east. What is its horizontal range when leaving its barrel at this edge of the cliff?

6. A gun: How fast does it fire a bullet?

This question has an easy answer. The bullet’s muzzle velocity is determined by two factors: mass and acceleration caused by its atomic nucleus. Thus, muzzle velocity serves as an excellent indication of its speed.

7. Gun: How much force does it exert on a target?

A bullet has an effective maximum force of 1.2 times its weight. A lighter bullet, such as a lead sphere, may be slower to penetrate tissue and disperse energy more evenly; however, this makes it less effective when striking stationary targets. For optimal effectiveness when striking stationary targets with guns, look for bullets with low frontal areas and high wind-splitting arcs which are both cheap and efficient.