Research on Interviewing
Research on interviewing has found that more structured interviews result in better hiring decisions. In contrast, less structured interviews lead to poorer hiring decisions. Interviews that are structured in a specific way are similar to standardized tests, in that a person who takes a test will not respond the same way to the same questions. As a result, different interviewers may give different ratings to the same applicants.
To prepare for an interview, researchers should prepare a topic guide, which includes the questions that the interviewer will ask during the interview. The topic guide should be a single to two-page document that includes questions and probes related to the research topic. Using a topic guide can help researchers stay on track. However, they should not feel locked into the topic guide. Depending on the interviewer’s style, the researcher may follow the participant’s lead or veer off topic.
The number of interviews also varies depending on the type of interview, the population studied, and the comparisons that will be made. Studies based on quota sampling, for instance, will need more interviews than those focusing on a single group. Studies involving multiple interviews, on the other hand, will require fewer participants.
Interviews are usually conducted face-to-face, but they can also be conducted by telephone or video conferencing. The way the interviewer treats an interviewee, especially if they are nervous, will impact the outcome. When an interviewee feels that the interviewer is positive about them, they will act accordingly. Likewise, if they feel that the interviewer is not positive about them, they may feel more anxious.
Researchers must also decide what data to capture in the transcript. Depending on the analytic focus of the study, they should decide whether to include intelligent verbatim or capture other aspects of speech. If they are interested in the manifest content of the interview, they may want to transcribe only the verbatims. If they are looking for a more in-depth view, they may want to record more aspects of speech.
The research on interviewing has shown that people respond differently to different formats. They may be more open to a video interview, or they may be more receptive to nonverbal cues. In general, face-to-face interviews tend to be media rich than video interviews.
Research on interviewing has shown that men who are high in the Machiavellianism personality trait are more likely to fabricate information during job interviews. While they may seem to be doing well in an interview, these individuals may be trying to control their interpersonal interactions by making up information. This is not a good way to conduct a job interview.
Other research on interviewing has shown that the interviewing process can result in covert discrimination based on disabilities. For example, people with physical disabilities have lower ratings than applicants who don’t have visible disabilities.